URL encoding for binary data

URL encoding, also known as percent-encoding, is a mechanism for encoding information in a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) under certain circumstances. Although it is known as URL encoding it is, in fact, used more generally within the main Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) set, which includes both Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and Uniform Resource Name (URN). As such it is also used in the preparation of data of the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" media type, as is often used in the submission of HTML form data in HTTP requests.[1]

Since the publication of RFC 1738 in 1994 it has been specified that schemes that provide for the representation of binary data in a URI must divide the data into 8-bit bytes and percent-encode each byte in the same manner as above. Byte value 0x0F, for example, should be represented by %0F, but byte value 0x41 can be represented by A, or %41. The use of unencoded characters for alphanumeric and other unreserved characters is typically preferred as it results in shorter URLs.[2]

[1] www.urlencoder.org/
[2] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percent-encoding

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